A noun is a person, place, or thing. Usually the first words you will learn in a language are nouns. Here are a few you should know in English in the singular and plural forms.
For those all we needed to do was add an “s” to the end to make the word plural. But for words that end in s, x, or ch we need to add “es” for the plural form.
When a word ends in “f” or “fe” you replaces those letters with “ves”.
For some nouns there are no rules.
This is especially true for words that end in “o” and “y”.
For some words the singular and plural are the same.
Interestingly some words maintain their Latin or Greek plural forms.
A pronoun is a word that is substituted for a noun. For example, instead of saying “people” you say “everybody”. Instead of saying “the man” you say “who”. Pronouns are divided up into several categories.
Relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, whose, whichever, whoever, whomever
Demonstrative pronouns: this, these, that, those
(singular) anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, either, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something
(plural) both, few, many several
(singular or plural) all, any, most, none, some
Interrogative (or “questioning”) pronouns: what, who, which, whom, whose
(singular with a noun) her, his, its, my, your – “That is her car”
(plural with a noun) our, their, your – “That is our car”
(singular alone) hers, his, mine, yours – “That (car) is hers”
(plural alone) ours, theirs, yours – “That (car) is ours”
A personal pronoun is a word that is substituted for a regular noun. For example, instead of saying “man” you say “he”. Instead of saying “the horses” you say “they”. Instead of saying “the turtle” you say “it”. There are several forms for personal pronouns, depending on whether they function as the subject, the object, or the reflexive (self, selves) of the sentence.
|First person singular||I, me, myself||I bought a TV. He bought a TV for me. I bought the TV for myself.|
|Second person singular||you, you, yourself||You made a cake. She made a cake for you. You made a cake for yourself.|
|Third person singular||he/she/it, him/her/it, himself/herself/itself||He/she/it hid. You hid him/her/it. He/she/it hid himself/herself/itself.|
|First person plural||we, us, ourselves||We bought a TV. He bought a TV for us. We bought the TV for ourselves.|
|Second person plural||you, you, yourselves||You made a cake. She made a cake for you. You made a cake for yourselves.|
|Third person plural||they, them, themselves||They hid. You hid them. They hid themselves.|