Nouns, Pronouns, and Personal Pronouns

Nouns

A noun is a person, place, or thing. Usually the first words you will learn in a language are nouns.  Here are a few you should know in English in the singular and plural forms.

Singular Plural
house houses
car cars
airplane airplanes
dog dogs
boy boys
girl girls

 

 

For those all we needed to do was add an “s” to the end to make the word plural.  But for words that end in s, x, or ch we need to add “es” for the plural form.

Singular Plural
match matches
coach coaches
box boxes
tax taxes
guess guesses
glass glasses

 

 

When a word ends in “f” or “fe” you replaces those letters with “ves”.

 

Singular Plural
half halves
loaf loaves
leaf leaves
wife wives
life lives
knife knives

 

 

For some nouns there are no rules.

 

Singular Plural
man men
woman women
child children
mouse mice
foot feet
tooth teeth

 

 

This is especially true for words that end in “o” and “y”.

 

Singular Plural
boy boys
story stories
ally allies
zero zeros
cello cellos
hero heroes

 

 

For some words the singular and plural are the same.

 

Singular Plural
fish fish
you you
deer deer
sheep sheep
species species
series series

 

 

Interestingly some words maintain their Latin or Greek plural forms.

 

Singular Plural
cactus cacti
syllabus syllabi
fungus fungi
crisis crises
criterion criteria
index indices

 

 

Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that is substituted for a noun. For example, instead of saying “people” you say “everybody”. Instead of saying “the man” you say “who”. Pronouns are divided up into several categories.

 

Relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, whose, whichever, whoever, whomever


Demonstrative pronouns
: this, these, that, those

 

Indefinite pronouns:

(singular) anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, either, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something

(plural) both, few, many several

(singular or plural) all, any, most, none, some

 

Interrogative (or “questioning”) pronouns: what, who, which, whom, whose

 

Possessive pronouns:

(singular with a noun) her, his, its, my, your – “That is her car”

(plural with a noun) our, their, your – “That is our car”

(singular alone) hers, his, mine, yours – “That (car) is hers”

(plural alone) ours, theirs, yours – “That (car) is ours”

 

 

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun is a word that is substituted for a regular noun. For example, instead of saying “man” you say “he”. Instead of saying “the horses” you say “they”. Instead of saying “the turtle” you say “it”. There are several forms for personal pronouns, depending on whether they function as the subject, the object, or the reflexive (self, selves) of the sentence.

First person singular I, me, myself I bought a TV. He bought a TV for me. I bought the TV for myself.
Second person singular you, you, yourself You made a cake. She made a cake for you. You made a cake for yourself.
Third person singular he/she/it, him/her/it, himself/herself/itself He/she/it hid. You hid him/her/it. He/she/it hid himself/herself/itself.
First person plural we, us, ourselves We bought a TV. He bought a TV for us. We bought the TV for ourselves.
Second person plural you, you, yourselves You made a cake. She made a cake for you. You made a cake for yourselves.
Third person plural they, them, themselves They hid. You hid them. They hid themselves.

 

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